It has been said that everything is a catalyst for something. Although profound, the statement is not very useful unless materials are organized into groups with common explained with theories or models and systematized into patterns from which new catalysts may be predicted. In this chapter, we examine common types of catalytic materials, current theories underlining their mode of action, and activity patterns useful in design. Much of this is brief by necessity, but the interested reader will find enough references for further study. For the casual reader, this chapter illustrates the complex background in catalysis and testifies to the current attempts to lift catalysis from an “art” to a “science.”
Catalytic materials fall into well-defined categories. The state of each catalyst is a consequence of process demands, e.g., for high activity, or degree of interaction with other components. Classification by electrical conductivity, as metals, semiconductors, and insulators, remains a satisfactory method in treating the theoretical background and behavior patterns of these widely differing materials.
- Track 1-1 HRTEM of Carbon Nanochips
- Track 2-2 HRTEM of Carbon Nanochips
- Track 3-3 Schematic of MWCNT
- Track 4-4 TEM of MWNT